FLANK ATTACKS

If, at the moment of combat, defending units are partially or completely surrounded by active and inactive enemy units or their ZOC (or impassable terrain), the attacker's die roll is enhanced. This bonus, called a "flank attack," applies even if some of the enemy units surrounding a defender do not participate in the attack.

The flank attack bonus is computed as follows:

1. "Covered Hexes": The active player determines the number of "covered" hexes among the six hexes adjacent to that defender. A covered hexes is one that meets any of the following conditions:

a. It is occupied by an undemoralized unit friendly to the attacker (including the attacking unit itself).

b. It is in the ZOC of the attacking unit itself or any undemoralized unit friendly to the attacker (including "restricted" ZOC; see 2.4).

c. It is a swamp or mountain hex, unconnected to the defender's hex by a road, pike, trail, or RR (including provisional swamps in a rain turn).

d. It is separated from the defender's hex by a major or minor river hexside which does not contain a bridge, dam, ferry, or ford. (Exceptions: In a rain turn, a hex is covered if it is separated from the defender by a ford hexside or a creek hexside untraversed by a road, pike, or RR.)

e. It is a hypothetical hex just off the map that would be adjacent to a mapedge hex occupied by the defender.

Note: Each of the six hexes adjacent to the defender may be counted only once in this step even if it fulfills more than one definition of "covered."

2. Basic Flank Bonus:

3. Final Flank Bonus: The basic flank bonus from Step 2 may be reduced to determine the "final flank bonus". The basic flank bonus is reduced by one for each covered hex meeting at least one of the following conditions:

a. It is occupied by an undemoralized unit friendly to the defender.

b. It is unoccupied and is separated from all adjacent units friendly to the attacker (including the attacking unit itself) by woods hexsides (see 2.3) untraversed by a road, pike, trail or RR.

c. It is a swamp or mountain hex, unconnected to the defender's hex by a road, pike, trail or RR (including provisional swamps in a rain turn).

d. It is separated from the defender's hex by a major or minor river hexside which does not contain a bridge, dam, ferry, or ford. (Or, in a rain turn, it is separated from the defender by a ford hexside or a creek hexside untraversed by a road, pike, trail, or RR.).

e. It is a hypothetical hex just off the map that would be adjacent to a mapedge hex occupied by the defender.

Note: Each of the six hexes adjacent to the defender may be counted only once in this step even if it fulfills more than one of the above conditions.

Maximum Reduction: The maximum reduction that may be applied to the basic flank bonus in this step is -3, even if a greater reduction would normally apply. Thus, if all six hexes adjacent to a defender are covered (yielding a basic flank bonus of +4 in Step 2) there will always be a final flank bonus of at least +1.

4. Apply Modifier: The final flank bonus from Step 3 is applied to the attacker's combat die roll, in addition to other modifiers.

Flank Bonus Conditions: The status of the attacker's units may modify a flank bonus. If one or more of the attacker's units occupy or exert a ZOC into a hex adjacent to the defender, and those units have a combined Combat value less than one-fourth the defender's Combat value (including entrenchments), that hex is not considered "covered" in Step 1a or 1b of the flank attack procedure. Inactive demoralized units belonging to the attacker may not contribute in any way to the achievement of a flank attack bonus.

Restrictions: A unit helping to provide a flank attack bonus which does not participate in the attack may not contribute its Tactical Value to a combat, nor does it trigger terrain modifiers. Flank attack bonuses may be modified when using the "Refusing Flanks" optional rules (see 7.8).


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