New Scenario:

ON THE 4TH DAY

a scenario for Roads to Gettysburg from the Great Campaigns of the American Civil War series

designed by Chris Withers

NOTES: After the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the Confederates had limited ammunition so they had to return to Virginia. Lee needed to give his wagon trains a head start and he hoped for a Union attack to be able to gain a tactical victory, so his army held their ground on Seminary Ridge. Meade was urged by some to attack, but he did not want to repeat Lee's mistake of attacking a strong position.

Both armies rested on the 4th, a strong rain started falling just after noon, and the Confederate wagon trains started in late afternoon. Lee slipped away that night and Meade only made a probe on the 5th towards Fairfield. Union cavalry did harass and destroy some of the Confederate wagon train.

VARIANTS: "On The 4th Day" is actually two scenarios in one. There are two variants to the scenario, Variant A which is called "Lee's Retreat", and Variant B which is called "The Battle Continues". Players should first pick the variant and then pick sides.

The initial setups are identical for each variant except for a few of the Confederate units. However, the Victory Conditions are completely different, and therefore so are how the variants play out. Many of the special rules for each variant also differ, and players may not mix these up between the variants. Variant A is completely historical where Lee has to retreat due to lack of ammunition. Variant B is based on the premise that Lee had enough ammunition to continue the battle.

VARIANT A: LEE'S RETREAT

MAP: Use both the North and South maps. Both maps may be folded along the East-West line (i.e. fold the top half of the North map under) before joining so they equal a single map's size. Players will have no need to move units outside this effective single-map area. Some of the rules (Union cavalry exit) and Victory Conditions (the LOC) may be clearer when viewing this effective single-map area.

GAME LENGTH:2 turns, July 4 to July 5, 1863

SETUPS: Click on the following text to go to the appropriate setup: Union, Confederate (Variant A Setup Only)

SPECIAL RULES

1. Rain: On turn 1 players must note the tied initiative rolls. On the 5th tied initiative roll, rain rules take immediate effect for that action phase and for the rest of the turn. Before this point rain rules are not in effect. Also refer to the Night special rule and its effect on the start of rain. Rain rules are also in effect for all of turn 2. For rain effects refer to the Advanced Game rules (Section 14.1).

2. Night on July 4th: Night falls on turn 1 after both players have passed to end the normal Action Cycle sequence. At this point, a 2nd Action Cycle is conducted with night rules in effect. There is no Recovery Phase prior to the Night Action Cycle. Players should roll for initiative to see which player moves first for the first Action Phase of Night. When both players have passed again, the turn proceeds normally with the Recovery Phase. Once night falls, rain rules are immediate effect if rain has not already started; therefore, the Confederate wagons are immediately released if they have not been already (see wagon rules below). Night only occurs on turn 1 and not on turn 2. The night Action Cycle is conducted under the following restrictions:

ZOC still function normally at night, and players can enter and exit ZOC per the normal rules.

3. Leaderless Union Corps: The infantry units labeled 'I Corps', 'II Corps', 'III Corps', and 'XI Corps' are designated as corps; but they are considered infantry divisions. The corps leaders commanding these corps do not appear in this scenario. Thus, these four units may not participate in an Activate Corps Leader action or a corps assault. They may participate in a grand assault.

4. Union Cavalry Leaders: The Union cavalry leader rule must be used in this scenario, it is not optional (reference new Standard Rules). The leaders and their associated brigades are identified in the Union Setup. Note that the leader David Gregg should not be used in this scenario. His brigades Irvin Gregg and McIntosh operate without a leader, while Huey is attached to Kilpatrick's Division (so Kilpatrick may activate him).

5. Union Cavalry Exit: Union cavalry units that move South of row Sxx17 may not move back into or North of this row (see Victory Conditions).

6. Confederate Wagon Trains: The Confederates have 3 wagon trains represented by the infantry substitute counters Sub-1, Sub-2, and Sub-3. These units have tactical ratings of 2 and no artillery value as per the substitute counters.

7.  Confederate Cavalry: Stuart may activate Jenkins as an exception to the Standard Rules section 5.2 on Activate Leader.  However, Stuart may still not activate Imboden.

VICTORY CONDITIONS (VARIANT A)

The Confederate player gains and loses Victory Points (VP) for the following occurrences:

VP Reason
+10 For each Confederate infantry and wagon train unit at the end of the game which can trace a "line of communication" (LOC). A LOC is a path of continuous hexes from the unit's hex (exclusive) to any road/pike hex between S0117 and S1117 inclusive (and in row Sxx17). The path may be of any length, but may only be traced hex-to-hex across road/pike hexsides. The LOC is exclusive of the unit's hex, meaning that it starts in any hex adjacent to the unit that the unit could move to. The road/pike hexside requirement starts when leaving this adjacent hex; therefore, the unit may be in a hex that does not contain a road/pike. Mountain hexes that comprise this path must contain a pike. The path may not enter row Nxx28, row Sxx18, or column 32XX. The path may not enter an enemy occupied hex or enemy ZOC - for this purpose, the presence of a Confederate unit does NOT negate a Union ZOC. Since the LOC starts in a hex adjacent to the Confederate unit, then the unit itself may be in a Union ZOC.

Union cavalry do not block a LOC with either their ZOC or the hex they occupy if a Confederate infantry unit (of any strength, fatigue, and status) is within 3 hexes of the cavalry unit. The 3 hexes from the Confederate infantry unit (exclusive) to the Union cavalry unit(s) (inclusive) must be traceable over hexes and hexsides (including the hexside leaving the infantry unit's hex) that the infantry unit can move over. However, the presence of enemy units and enemy ZOC do not affect this path. If there are no Confederate infantry within this distance of a Union cavalry unit, then that cavalry unit can block a LOC and no points at all would be received for the units whose LOC are blocked.

LOC VPs are reduced from 10 for a unit in the following situations. A unit that goes below 0 VPs for a LOC is counted as 0 VPs. Players may read the Designer's Notes section for a discussion of the historical basis of the LOC rules and penalties.

  • Wagons and infantry are -1 VP per Combat strength point (not Manpower strength point) of Union cavalry that would block the unit's LOC if there were not a Confederate infantry within 3 hexes (see above) of the cavalry. Half-combat strength points are used as-is, and the final Confederate VP total is rounded down. For example, for a 1/2 combat strength cavalry unit that blocks the LOC of 9 units, the effective reduction on the total Confederate VPs is -4.5; and if the final VP total were 81.5, then this is rounded down to 81.
  • Infantry (not wagons) are -8 VPs if the LOC must enter any hex on the North map.
  • Wagons (not infantry) are -8 VPs if the unit itself is in column 20xx (inclusive) or East of there if the unit is on the North map, or column 23xx (inclusive) or East of there if the unit is on the South map.
  • Infantry (not wagons) are -6 VPs if the unit itself is in column 26xx (inclusive) or East of there.
  • Wagons are -6 VPs and infantry are -4 VPs if the unit is in a Union ZOC. This VP penalty does not change depending on the number of units, different stacks of units, or status or type of units whose ZOC the Confederate unit is in.
  • Wagons and infantry are -2 VPs if the unit itself is not on a pike (even though the LOC actually starts adjacent to the unit).

For example, an infantry unit traces a LOC on the South map, is West of column 26xx, but is off-pike (-2 VPs) in hex S2505. In addition, if there are Union cavalry units with a combined combat power of 2 in hex S1707 but also a Confederate infantry unit in hex S1907 (-2 VPs; note this is exactly a 3 hex move path away), then the VP level is 6 for this unit.

Per Cavalry Combat Value if CSA infantry near

LOC on north map

Too far east

In ZOC

Off-pike

Infantry

-1

-8

-6

-4

-2

Wagons

-1

0

-8

-6

-2

LOC VP Reduction Summary Chart

+2 For each point of Union Manpower value lost in combat, retreat, or cavalry retreat.
+1 For each point of Union Manpower value lost in extended march, force march, or moving in-between enemy ZOCs.
-2 For each point of Confederate Manpower value lost in combat, retreat, or cavalry retreat.
-1 For each point of Confederate Manpower value lost in extended march, force march, or moving from one enemy ZOC to another. For wagon trains, this rule for extended march VPs is superseded by the specific VP rule below for wagon trains' extended marching.
-2 For each Union cavalry unit moved south of row Sxx17 on turn 1. Units may not exit on turn 2. No more than 3 units may be counted for these points (these units may not "return" North).
-4* For each hex into which a Confederate wagon train unit retreats due to combat (even by voluntary retreat).
-6* For each "D" or "1" result suffered by a Confederate wagon train unit in an extended march (not for combat or retreat).
-20* For each Confederate wagon train unit eliminated.

* For each wagon train unit, the total number of Confederate VP lost due to the three victory conditions marked with asterisks may not exceed 20. However, Manpower value losses in combat (or retreat) for wagon trains do not count toward this limit. For example if a wagon train suffers a "D" and then "1" result in extended marches and is later eliminated in combat (losing the 1 other manpower in combat), the total VP loss is 22.

At the end of the game, the Confederate VP total is calculated and the players consult the chart below to determine the winner.

Winner Confederate VP
Confederate Decisive Victory 105 or more
Confederate Substantive Victory 93 to 104
Confederate Marginal Victory 81 to 92
Union Marginal Victory 69 to 80
Union Substantive Victory 57 to 68
Union Decisive Victory 56 or less

VARIANT B: THE BATTLE CONTINUES

MAP: Use both the North and South maps. Both maps may be folded along the East-West line (i.e. fold the top half of the North map under) before joining so they equal a single map's size. Players will have no need to move units outside this effective single-map area.

GAME LENGTH:2 turns, July 4 to July 5, 1863

SETUPS: Click on the following text to go to the appropriate setup: Union, Confederate (Variant B Setup Only)

SPECIAL RULES

1. Rain: On turn 1 players must note the tied initiative rolls. On the 5th tied initiative roll, rain rules take immediate effect for that action phase and for the rest of the turn. Before this point rain rules are not in effect. If rain never starts on turn 1 because both players pass before the required number of tied initiatives, rain is still in effect for all of turn 2 (starting at the beginning of that turn). For rain effects refer to the Advanced Game rules (Section 14.1).

2. Leaderless Union Corps: The infantry units labeled 'I Corps', 'II Corps', 'III Corps', and 'XI Corps' are designated as corps; but they are considered infantry divisions. The corps leaders commanding these corps do not appear in this scenario. Thus, these four units may not participate in an Activate Corps Leader action or a corps assault. They may participate in a grand assault.

3. First Initiative of Turn 1: The Union automatically wins the first initiative on turn 1 (there is no die roll). All succeeding initiatives on turns 1 and 2 are rolled for normally.

4. Union Cavalry Leaders: The Union cavalry leader rule must be used in this scenario, it is not optional (reference new Standard Rules). The leaders and their associated brigades are identified in the Union Setup. Note that the leader David Gregg should not be used in this scenario. His brigades Irvin Gregg and McIntosh operate without a leader, while Huey is attached to Kilpatrick's Division (so Kilpatrick may activate him).

5. Definition of Control: A player gains control of an enemy-controlled objective hex at the moment one of his infantry (not cavalry or artillery) units enters that hex. A player maintains control of an objective hex even if he does not have an infantry unit occupying it, assuming the enemy player does not gain control of that hex. All objective hexes are identified as to which side controls them at the start of the game.

6. Objectives Controlled by Each Side at Start: The Confederate player controls the following objectives at the start of the game: Gettysburg, hex S3102, Peach Orchard, Benner's Hill, and Wolf Hill. The Union player controls the following objectives at the start of the game: Culp's Hill, Evergreen Cemetery, Round Top, and hex S3303.

7.  Confederate Cavalry: Stuart may activate Jenkins as an exception to the Standard Rules section 5.2 on Activate Leader.  However, Stuart may still not activate Imboden.

VICTORY CONDITIONS:

The Confederate player gains and loses VP for the following (control points are for if the player controls the hex at the end of the game):

VP Reason
+10 If the Confederate player controls Gettysburg (S3201)
+5 If the Confederate player controls hex S3102
+5 If the Confederate player controls Peach Orchard (S3103)
+5 If the Confederate player controls Benner's Hill (N3334)
+5 If the Confederate player controls Wolf Hill (S3401)
+5 If the Confederate player controls Culp's Hill (S3302)
+5 If the Confederate player controls Evergreen Cemetery (S3202)
+5 If the Confederate player controls Round Top (S3203)
+5 If the Confederate player controls hex S3303
+1 For each point of Union Manpower value lost in combat, retreat, or cavalry retreat (not in extended march, force march, or moving from one enemy ZOC to another).
-1 For each point of Confederate Manpower value lost in combat, retreat, or cavalry retreat (not in extended march, force march, or moving from one enemy ZOC to another).

At the end of the game, the Confederate VP total is calculated and the players consult the chart below to determine the winner.

Winner Confederate VP
Confederate Decisive Victory 51 or more
Confederate Substantive Victory 46 to 50
Confederate Marginal Victory 41 to 45
Union Marginal Victory 36 to 40
Union Substantive Victory 31 to 35
Union Decisive Victory 30 or less

Designer's General Notes

Some comments are in order regarding the rules and initial setup and how these relate to history. I wanted to create a scenario that was playable in a tournament, which typically means a three-day or less scenario. In fact, two scenarios were possible given the situation on the 4th. The what-if of a short continuation of the Gettysburg battle lends itself to this time frame as does the initial stages of Lee's actual withdrawal. Due to players' frequent lack of playing space, I wanted a scenario playable on a single map, or one of that size which is what this scenario is after folding each map in half. The scenario had to differ enough from "The Battle That Never Happened" to be worth doing, which is another reason for this being a two day scenario since any more would be too much overlap for the Lee's Retreat variant.

Lee actually wanted the Union to attack so he could at least obtain a tactical victory. However, he was low on ammunition so he had to return to Virginia no matter what happened. Lee also needed to stay on the 4th to give his wagon train time to assemble (the wagons did not start moving until 4P.M. on the 4th). He then planned to follow with his infantry, having repulsed a Union frontal assault, and get all his divisions back to Virginia safely. His army was anything but whipped, but its retreat path was vulnerable. Meade did not want to lose heavily in an attack on Lee. He did however set his cavalry in motion on the 4th to harass the Confederate wagons and possible retreat paths. When he finally realized on the 5th that Lee was retreating, he only sent some of his infantry after him. What if Meade had no such lack of initiative or lack of full view of the real situation? Could he inflict heavy combat casualties on the Rebs, cut off or severely harass their retreat, and/or destroy their wagon train?

On the other hand, which side would prevail if Lee had enough ammunition to continue the fight? For this variant, Ewell's corps has been moved back to where they were before Lee withdrew them on the evening of the 3rd. Several of Stuart's brigades are also moved back to where they camped the night of the 3rd after the cavalry battle in the Granite Hill area. Note that Ewell's withdrawal was not discovered by Stuart until early on the 4th, so Stuart then withdrew from his then exposed position. It is after Stuart's withdrawal that the Lee's Retreat Variant starts play from.

Just doing this one scenario within the structure of an existing game certainly showed me the huge effort that Joe Balkoski and Ed Beach put forth in creating a whole new GCACW game. One issue is that infantry brigades were frequently detached from their divisions and sent to the other flank. Thus, one part of a division may have fought in a fierce battle while the other part was well rested. Therefore, because infantry units are represented at the divisional level, deciding on an appropriate start status (fatigue, location, whether to be disorganized) and how this status should correlate to all other units was a very wrenching decision.

"Lee's Retreat" Notes

In "Lee's Retreat", primary importance is given in the victory conditions to whether the Rebs can keep their retreat path open and keep their wagons safe. This is similar to the conditions in Johnston's Retreat in ONR. Territorial objectives and manpower losses were not as important at this point in the campaign.

The special rules and victory conditions relating to wagons are a near verbatim duplicate from Johnston's Retreat in ONR. The number of wagons was increased from the 2 in that scenario to 3 here to simulate the long length of the Confederate train after Gettysburg due to all the forage, plunder and wounded. In fact, two different wagon trains were on two different roads. The larger one went by the Cashtown pike, to keep the main road clear for the Confederate army, and stretched 17 miles from front to rear. The shorter train went with the army down the Fairfield pike and was the wagons for the combined corps. The 10,000 or so walking wounded in these trains, many of who carried arms, are part of the reason for the manpower level of 2 for each train.

The LOC VPs decreases depending on the quality of a unit's retreat path (LOC) vs. the optimal LOC. These factors are which pike is used, whether a unit is on the pike, how far a unit has gone, whether they are in the ZOC of the enemy, and whether Union cavalry could slow the unit down. The optimal Reb situation is a column of units on the pike that is not being harassed by Union units and is screened by Reb cavalry.

A single division can sneak through a small mountain road, but for moving an entire army during a retreat, the pikes were Lee's only choices. Thus there were only 2 routes out for the Rebs, one through Monterey Gap (Fairfield) and another through Newman's Pass (Cashtown). The main wagon train used the Cashtown route, so the Reb infantry had to take the Southern route, which would of course keep them from possibly getting cutoff from Virginia if they took the more Northern Cashtown route. The Rebs are given the freedom to alter the course of history and take infantry out the North pike or to take all the wagons out the South pike. However, LOC penalties and extended march penalties can cause the Rebs to lose if they use this strategy too much.

Units that are off-pike or that have not gone a certain distance will have had this happen due to Union pressure and thus the distance (too far East) and off-pike VP penalties. If Union units exert a ZOC onto Reb infantry/wagons, then the Reb cavalry screen is not as effective as it could be or the Rebs did not conduct a good retreat and then the Reb units could be attacked or harassed the next day.

Cavalry can only slow up a Reb column if infantry is near enough to keep them from being reinforced or digging in. Buford had several magnificent delaying actions in the war, but that is all cavalry could really do against infantry which is the reason for the LOC rule as it relates to cavalry. The infantry unit attacking the blocking cavalry is sowed down and this affects and slows the column of troops/wagons behind. If Reb infantry is too far from the blocking cavalry, then the Union could dig in or be reinforced before the Rebs could push them away; therefore, the LOC would be completely blocked.

The wagon movement needed to be delayed to simulate the need to assemble them. An extremely late rain may occur in some games, which is still historical in that the rain was in fact so heavy that it was like night and little activity was possible. The wagon release rule forces the Reb infantry to stick around the battle area like really happened (a late rain merely accentuates this).

Buford's cavalry division (Devin, Gamble, and Merritt) moved South towards Frederick on the 4th to try to cutoff the Reb retreat farther south. Kilpatrick briefly went far South but quickly came back North to attack the wagons. The Union player gets to decide whether to take sure VPs for exiting cavalry, or to go for the knockout by using more cavalry to get VPs via the other victory conditions.

"The Battle Continues" Notes

The victory conditions in this scenario force a battle between infantry over local terrain objectives. The Union is given the first initiative to help push the outcome closer to what might have happened if the battle continued in the real war. This also helps to better simulate the Union advantage of an interior line.

Upgrading To New Rules

This scenario has been play-tested using the original RTG rules but with the Union cavalry leader rule. However, playing this scenario with the new Standard Rules (e.g. artillery modifier, fatigue system) should not alter the play balance. This is because different elements of the new rules will (slightly) favor each side so the overall effect will be neutral.

Credits

Game & Rules Design: Joseph M. Balkoski & Ed Beach

Scenario Design: Chris Withers

Consulting: Paul Nied

Playtesting: Ed Beach, Don Lein, Paul Nied, Scott Spurgeon, Stephen Williams

Union Cavalry Leaders

Until publication of the GCACW Standard Rules, the following shall be used as the rules for Union cavalry leaders.

Union cavalry division leaders are an optional rule for RTG in the GCACW Standard Rules. The point of the optional rule is simply to give the Union player the ability to maneuver his cavalry by divisions, as they did in reality for the most part during the campaign. The advantages are strictly in terms of movement, and even those are more limited than Stuart's.

Leader Values:

If the rule is employed, Custer's and Farnsworth's Tactical values go down from 2 to 1. (Their brigades had just come out of the Washington DC defenses and were essentially green.)

Each leader has a Command Radius of 2. To determine Movement Allowance in Activate Leader action, roll two dice and add one to the sum. If a cavalry leader is used in an Activate Leader action, no unit marching as part of that action may attack. (If a Union cavalry brigade wishes to attack, it must activate on its own.)

To attack during a March Action, a Union cavalry unit must activate on its own, so there is no +1 to the movement roll, and only 1 unit may be activated. If a Union cavalry leader is ALREADY in the SAME hex as the cavalry unit performing a March Action, then the cavalry leader may be brought along with the cavalry unit to locate with it for future desires and to lend the tactical value of the cavalry leader in the attack (only of help for Custer and Farnsworth). If the cavalry leader is not in the same start hex as the unit performing the March Action, then the leader may not leader transfer to the unit, nor may the cavalry unit "pick up" the leader and bring it along by passing through its hex.

Union cavalry division leaders may do a multi-unit assault if their brigades are in the same hex, as per normal rules.


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